A temporary work permit is written authorization to work in Canada from Citizenship and Immigration Canada for a person who is not a Canadian citizen or a Canadian permanent resident. It is usually valid for a specific job and a specific length of time.
In addition, some foreign workers require a temporary resident visa to enter Canada. If you need a temporary resident visa, you do not need to make a separate application - it will be issued at the same time as the documentation necessary for you to enter Canada as a temporary worker.
Your prospective employer will likely need to get a labour market opinion from Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRDSC) to confirm that the job can be filled by a foreign worker.
In order for your spouse or common-law partner and dependent children to accompany you to Canada, they must also apply for permission. They don't need to complete separate applications, however. The names and relevant information for immediate family members can be included on your application for a temporary work permit.
The process and documents required to work temporarily in the province of Quebec are different, so check the Ministère de l’Immigration et des Communautés culturelles for details.